Canada,country located in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land territory being dominated by forest and tundra and the Rocky Mountains. It is highly urbanized with 82 percent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Its capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. Canada's climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons.
The politics of Canada function within a framework of parliamentary democracy and a federal system of parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions. Canada is a constitutional monarchy, in which the Monarch is head of state. The country has a multi-party system in which many of its legislative practices derive from the unwritten conventions of and precedents set by the Westminster Parliament of the United Kingdom. However, Canada has evolved variations: party discipline in Canada is stronger than in the United Kingdom and more parliamentary votes are considered motions of confidence, which tends to diminish the role of non-Cabinet Members of Parliament, (MPs). Such members, in the government caucus, and junior or lower-profile members of opposition caucuses, are known as backbenchers. Backbenchers can, however, exert their influence by sitting in parliamentary committees, like the Public Accounts Committee or the National-Defence Committee.
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A multitude of languages are used in Canada. According to the 2011 census, English and French are the mother tongues of 56.9% and 21.3% of Canadians respectively. In total 85.6% of Canadians have working knowledge of English while 30.1% have a working knowledge of FrenchMany Canadians believe that the relationship between the English and French languages is the central or defining aspect of the Canadian experience
Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary from region to region. Winters can be harsh in many parts of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces, which experience a continental climate, where daily average temperatures are near −15 °C (5 °F), but can drop below −40 °C (−40 °F) with severe wind chills,In noncoastal regions, snow can cover the ground for almost six months of the year, while in parts of the north snow can persist year-round. Coastal British Columbia has a temperate climate, with a mild and rainy winter. On the east and west coasts, average high temperatures are generally in the low 20s °C (70s °F), while between the coasts, the average summer high temperature ranges from 25 to 30 °C (77 to 86 °F), with temperatures in some interior locations occasionally exceeding 40 °C (104 °F
Transportation in Canada, the world's second-largest country in total area, Most Canadian cities have public transport, if only a bus system. Three Canadian cities have rapid transit systems, four have light rail systems, and three have commuter rail systems (see below). In 2006, 11% of Canadians used public transportation to get to work. This compares to 80.0% that got to work using a car (72.3% by driving, 7.7% as a passenger), 6.4% that walked and 1.3% that rode a bike,There are three rapid transit systems operating in Canada: the Montreal Metro, the Toronto subway, and the Vancouver SkyTrain.
"One of the biggest reasons students choose to come to Canada is the quality of a Canadian education. A Canadian degree is widely recognized as equal to one from the United States, Australia, or the United Kingdom, and Canadian universities consistently do well in international rankings. In fact, in one study in 2016, three Canadian Universities were ranked in the top 50 universities in the world. There’s a wide array of Canadian institutions to choose from, but whether you attend a university, college, or vocational school, there’s no doubt that a Canadian education is world-class."
"Cost is the most significant barrier for most students hoping to study abroad. Canadian international students have to pay higher tuition fees than domestic students. That said, the average annual tuition for an international student’s Canadian undergraduate degree was $16,746 USD in 2014. Compare that to the U.S. ($24,914 USD), Australia ($24,081 USD) or the United Kingdom ($21,365 USD ). Aside from paying tuition, international students also need to find housing and finance their daily lives. The cost of living in Canada is seriously affordable compared to most other top destinations for international students. In 2014, the average cost of living per year for international students in Canada was $13,021 USD. When you combine the average annual cost of living and average annual tuition fees, Canada is clearly the most affordable option."
Even though Canada is a relatively affordable option, there’s no doubt that studying abroad is expensive. Luckily, international students in Canada are eligible to work up to 20 hours per week during school terms and full-time (30 hours/week) during scheduled breaks like summer vacation. Most students don’t need a work permit to work while they study, whether their job is on campus or off campus. Your study permit will indicate whether you’re allowed to work off campus.
"Another big reason why students choose to come to Canada is personal safety. Studying abroad can be scary, especially if you’re leaving your friends and family behind. The Institute for Economics & Peace ranked Canada as the 8th most peaceful country in the world in 2016. Unlike most other countries, Canada is pretty isolated in terms of location. It’s protected on three sides by oceans, and only shares a border with the United States. That distance provides a bit of a buffer from most international conflicts. Canada has a democratically elected government, and the fundamental rights and freedoms of those living in Canada are protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Canada has a well-deserved international reputation as a tolerant and non-discriminatory society. Immigrants make up a fifth of Canada’s entire population, and Canadian laws ensure that all people, regardless of their circumstance, are protected from discrimination."
"When you travel abroad to study, you usually get temporary status in the country you’re studying in. That status usually expires when your program ends, so you have to return home when you graduate. Canada has a lot of programs designed to encourage international students to transition to permanent residence after their studies. Options like the Post-Graduation Work Permit let graduates stay and work on an open work permit after graduation and give them an opportunity to get some Canadian work experience. Most Canadian provinces have Provincial Nominee streams for applicants with experience studying or working in the province, and Canada’s federal economic immigration streams offer additional points for Canadian work and study experience. In 2015, 51 percent of international students planned to apply for Canadian permanent residence."